<위키피디아 세계인권선언에 있는 내용 중에서 병역거부관련 파트 정리. 흥미로운 부분이 있네>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Declaration_of_Human_Rights
The Right to Refuse to Kill
Groups such as Amnesty International and War Resisters International have advocated for "The Right to Refuse to Kill" to be added to the UDHR. War Resisters International has stated that the right to conscientious objection to military service is primarily derived from, but not yet explicit in, Article 18 the UDHR: the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
Steps have been taken within the United Nations to make this right more explicit; but those steps have been limited to secondary, more "marginal" United Nations documents. That is why Amnesty International would like to have this right brought "out of the margins" and explicitly into the primary document, namely the UDHR itself.
To the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights one more might, with relevance, be added. It is "The Right to Refuse to Kill."
Sean MacBride, 1974 Nobel Lecture
Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1974
In addition to the two Covenants there are also many other Human Rights Conventions that require ratification and implementation. But above all, there is a need for effective implementation mechanism at domestic and at international levels. May I suggest that the universities and youth organizations should concentrate actively on these questions and make their voices heard. The rising generation are entitled to demand of their governments that they ratify and implement the principles which they proclaim as being theirs and which are enshrined in the Universal Declaration. An active public opinion campaign should be mounted in every country on these issues.
There is nothing more damaging to the concept of world order and peace than the massive violations of human rights that continue to occur in various parts of the world. The torture and massacres of political prisoners have spread like a malignant contagious disease from country to country. The detailed Reports of Amnesty International, which are not seriously challenged, provide an index to the extent and ramification of this malignant disease. In Southern Africa the imposition of racial discrimination and of slave-like conditions on the African populations are an affront to the principles of the United Nations. Likewise, South Africa's refusal to relinquish its illegal occupation of Namibia and its flogging of Namibian political prisoners are acts that call for determined action by the governments.
To the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights one more might, with relevance, be added. It is "The Right to Refuse to Kill". Both at the World Conference on Religion and Peace at Kyoto (1970) and at the Baden Consultation on Churches (1970) very clear-cut conclusions were adopted:
"We consider that the exercise of conscientious judgment is inherent in the dignity of human beings and that, accordingly, each person should be assured the right, on grounds of conscience or profound conviction, to refuse military service, or any other direct or indirect participation in wars or armed conflicts. The right of conscientious objection also extends to those who are unwilling to serve in a particular war because they consider it unjust or because they refuse to participate in a war or conflict in which weapons of mass destruction are likely to be used. This Conference also considers that members of armed forces have the right, and even the duty, to refuse to obey military orders which may involve the commission of criminal offenses, or of war crimes, or of crimes against humanity".
I have drawn attention to the issues raised in these Conclusions because they appear to be of particular relevance to the present-day world. The right of an individual to refuse to kill, to torture or to participate in the preparation for the nuclear destruction of humanity seem to me to be fundamental.
<엠네스티 인터네셔널 1997년 자료>
OUT OF THE MARGINS: THE RIGHT TO CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION TO MILITARY SERVICE IN EUROPE. AN ANNOUNCEMENT OF AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL'S FORTHCOMING CAMPAIGN AND BRIEFING FOR THE UN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
In spite of the recognition in both UN and European standards to the right to conscientious objection, many European states continue to deny this right to many of their citizens. The present report announces AI's campaign for the recognition of the right to conscientious objection to military service in Europe, which will be launched on 15 April 1997. It is also a briefing for the 53rd session of the UN Commission on Human Rights currently under way in Geneva. The report gives an overview of the various international and European human rights standards regarding conscientious objection and explains the provisions that governments should make for conscientious objectors. The report concludes by making some recommendations which, if implemented, would considerably enhance human rights protection for conscientious objectors.
<WRI 관련 내용>
Right to Refuse to Kill
War Resisters' International's work in support of conscientious objectors
Conscientious objection has always been at the very centre of WRI's policy. WRI's declaration not to support any kind of war is a call to refuse to serve in any military or armed forces, a call to conscientious objection.
War Resisters' International supports all conscientious objectors, whether they are willing to perform a substitute service (in countries where this option exists) or not. War Resisters' International does not judge a person's motives to refuse to kill, and values a person's individual decision not to take part in war and preparation for war as an impor-tant step to end wars.
No to war
WRI will never endorse any kind of war, whether it is waged by a state, by a "liberation army", or under the auspices of the United Nations, even if it is called a "humanitarian military intervention". Wars, however noble the rhetoric, are invariably used to serve some power-political or economic interest. We know where war leads -- to suffering and destruction, to rape and organised crime, to betrayal of values and to new structures of domination.
War Resisters' International's programme The Right to Refuse to Kill combines a wide range of activities to support conscientious objectors individually, as well as organised groups and movements for conscientious objection.
Supporting COs in prison: co-alerts
In many countries, prison is still the fate of conscientious objectors. Thousands of COs are still in prison -- in South Korea, Israel, Finland, Spain, and many other countries. Despite many countries having introduced laws on conscientious objection, many COs still face imprisonment, because they either don't fit into the authorities' criteria, or they refuse to perform any alternative service. War Resisters' International supports conscientious objectors who are imprisoned because of their conscientious objection, or face repression by the state or state-like entities. Co-alerts, sent out by email as soon as the WRI office receives information on the imprisonment or trial of a con-scientious objector, are a powerful tool to mobilise support and protest. Co-alerts are available by email (through the web interface athttp://lists.wri-irg.org/sympa) or on the internet at wri-irg.org/news/alerts .
Supporting COs on the run: CO Asylum
Conscientious objectors often have to leave their country in order to flee from prosecution and imprisonment. However, conscientious objection is rarely accepted as a reason for asylum, and COs soon find themselves in danger of being deported back to their home country -- into the very situation that made them leave.
War Resisters' International demands the recognition of conscientious objection as a reason for asylum. War Resisters' International supports asylum seekers in their asylum claim through providing information on military service and the punishment for draft evasion and conscientious objection.
WRI, as part of a coalition of CO support organisations, is hosting CONCODOC (CONscription and Conscientious Objection DOcumentation Centre), a worldwide documentation on the situation of conscription and conscientious objection. It is the only one of its kind in the world. You can read all 180 CONCODOC country reports atwri-irg.org/co/rtba/; some reports are also available in Spanish.
Supporting CO movements & international campaigns
All over the world new movements for conscientious objection are emerging. War Resisters' International sees support to new CO movements -- solidarity actions, training of CO activists, and the exchange of experience -- as one of its most important tasks. During the 1990s these activities focussed on support to the CO movement in Turkey (especially during the imprisonment of Osman Murat Ülke), and on the Balkans. These struggles are not over yet, but new CO movements are emerging in South East Asia, Latin America, Israel, and in Africa. All these CO movements need international support.
War Resisters' International coordinates two international days of action, which both focus on support to peace activists and conscientious objectors.
15 May was first celebrated as a day of action in 1982. The day focusses on the struggle for the right to conscientious objection, and WRI usually highlights one particular struggle each year, while at the same time remembering those who served this cause in the past.
Prisoners for Peace Day is a way to support those imprisoned for their stand against war and war preparations, by sending greeting cards to prisoners, and raising public awareness of prisoners for peace.
Prisoners for Peace Day was introduced in the 1950s, but its roots go back to the 1920s, when WRI called for sending Christmas greetings to prisoners. You can read a history of Prisoners for Peace Day at wri-irg.org/co/pfphist.htm or view the current year's and past years' lists and campaign packs at the Broken Rifle/Prisoners for Peace homepage.